Xgridfit has a number of elements corresponding to the arithmetic instructions of TrueType. While it is generally best to use Xgridfit's expression syntax for arithmetic, these elements may occasionally come in handy and so are mentioned here. The <set-equal> and <round> elements are especially likely to be useful.
Arithmetic elements generally have one or two attributes for operands and a result-to attribute for the place to store the result. The result-to attribute can be the name of a variable, an entry in the Control Value Table, or one of the graphics state variables that can be written to. If one of the operands is missing, Xgridfit assumes that the missing value can be found on the run-time stack. If the result-to attribute is missing, Xgridfit attempts to write the result to the operand that normally appears on the left in an arithetic expression. Failing that, Xgridfit issues a warning and generates code that leaves the result on the stack. The behavior of an arithmetic element is somewhat different when it is the child of a <formula> element.
Adds value1 to value2. If there is no result-to attribute, Xgridfit attempts to write the result to value1.
Subtracts minuend - subtrahend. If result-to is not specified, Xgridfit attempts to write the result to minuend.
Multiplies value1 by value2. If there is no result-to attribute, Xgridfit attempts to write the result to value1.
Divides dividend by divisor. If result-to is not specified, Xgridfit attempts to write the result to dividend.
Set target (variable, control value, or any of the graphics state variables that Xgridfit can write to) equal to source, which can be an expression or any number type that Xgridfit can handle.
Converts negative to positive numbers; positive numbers stay positive.
Converts positive to negative numbers; negative numbers stay negative.
<!ELEMENT negate EMPTY> <!ATTLIST negate value CDATA #IMPLIED result-to CDATA #IMPLIED>
Yields the greatest integer less than or equal to value, which is either an integer representing 64ths of a pixel or a fixed-point number. The returned value, if looked at as an integer, is either zero or a multiple of 64.
Yields the smallest integer greater than or equal to value.
Yields the lesser of the two values value1 and value2.
Yields the greater of the two values value1 and value2.
Rounds a distance (expressed by value) according to the current round state, applies whatever correction is appropriate for the "color" of the distance, and returns the result.
Like round, but without the rounding. That is, it may apply a correction for the "color" of the distance, but it will not round the distance.
Assigns the index of a control value to a variable. Use this if you need to get such an index for any reason, since the <set-equal> instruction yields the value, not the index, of a control value.
- Name of the <control-value> element for which we want the index. No other kind of value is recognized here.
- Name of a variable in which to store the control value index. Only a variable is permitted here--not, for example, the name of another control value.
A formula is a block containing arithmetical instruction elements. Within the <formula> the behavior of these elements is modified slightly: when a result-to attribute is missing, they do not attempt to write their result back to one of the values passed to them, but rather leave it on the stack, thus making it available to the following instruction element. Further, while Xgridfit normally issues a warning when an arithmetic element takes a value from the stack or leaves a result on the stack, within a formula this is the expected behavior and so the warning is suppressed. The instructions within the formula should be chained, the result of one operation being used as an argument for the following one; this results in tight code being generated. Example:
<formula result-to="minimum-distance"> <round value="lc-vert-stem"/> <multiply value2="0.8p"/> </formula>
This rounds the control-value "lc-vert-stem," multiplies it by 0.8, and sets the minimum distance in the graphics state to the result. The original entry in the control-value table is unchanged. By contrast, if this <round> element were not the child of a <formula>, the result would be written back to the control-value table.